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Geography Study Material for TNPSC Group Exams -Part 1

  1. The first person to use the term 'geography' is Greek scholar Erastosthenes.
  2. Cartography is the study of maps
  3. Geomorphology is the study of landforms, their distribution and origin.
  4. Hydrology is the study of earth's water-ocean, rivers, glaciers etc.
  5. Earth is lying between planets Venus and Mars
  6. Earth is fifth largest Planet
  7. Earth is an oblate spheroid – It has 18 meter rise at the north pole and 26 meter depression at the south pole.
  8. Modern air routes and ocean navigation are based on the assumption that the earth is round.
  9. Age of earth is 4.5 billion years
  10. Earth rotation itself time is 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.09 seconds
  11. Earth revolution around sun period is 365 days , 6 hours, 9 minutes, 9.54 seconds
  12. Polar Diameter (distance from north to south pole) is 12713.54 kilometres
  13. Equatorial Diameter (distance through equator) is 12756.32 kilometres. Higher than polar diametre
  14. Circumference : Polar – 40008 km, Equatorial – 40075.16 km
  15. Total Surface Area of Earth is 509,700,000 square km. Land area is 148,400,000 square km (29 % of total surface area) . Water area 361,300,000 (71 % 0f total suface area)
  16. Mass of the earth is 5.88828*1021
  17. Mean Denisty – 5.517
  18. Highest land area of earth– Mount Everest (8,848 metres above sea level)
  19. Lowest Land area of earth– Shore of Dead Sea, 399 metres below sea level
  20. Deepest part of Ocean - Area of Mariana Trench in Pacific ocean south west of Guam (11,033 metres below sea level)
  21. Average Ocean Depth is 3730 metres.
  22. Highest temperature on earth is 58o C at Al Aziziyah, Libya
  23. Lowest temprature on earth is -89o C at Vostok Station in Antartica.
  24. Average Surface Temprature is 14o C
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