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Tamilnadu General Knowledge Notes | Agriculture - 2

Farmers Integrated Handbook (FIHB)

Issued by Government to the farmers , containing personal information of
farmers, soil test results, season wise, crop wise nutrient recommendation and scheme benefits valid for three years to help the farmers in planning their cropping programme and estimating the input requirement, encouraging organic farming through cultivation of green manure crops, application of organic manures, biofertilizers etc., and correcting micro nutrient deficiencies.

Farming Concepts

Precision Farming

Precision Farming is being promoted on cluster basis wherein farmers are being provided with critical inputs such as seeds, water soluble fertilizers at 50% subsidy besides conducting adequate training programme

Micro Irrigation

Micro irrigation, as a part of measures in increasing the Water & Fertilizer Use Efficiency is promoted in a larger extent as it helps reduce weed menace, maintain optimum plant population and increase the productivity & quality of
agricultural produce.

Integrated farming

Integrated farming is a broad based agriculture which focuses on a few selected, inter dependant, inter- related production systems based on crops, animals and
subsidiary profession. Integrated farming represents an appropriate combination of farm enterprises viz., agriculture, horticulture, livestock, fisheries, forestry and poultry based on farmers’ priorities, resources and marketing. It ensures maximum utilization of resources in terms of time and
space, making all the enterprises mutually complementing each other. This type of farming has several advantages such as increasing economic yield, profitability round the year, sustainability and balanced nutrition, pollution free
environment and provide opportunity for recycling the byproduct, enhance employment generation, increased input use efficiency and ultimately improves the economic status of the farming community.

Dry land farming

These approaches are being promoted effectively at farm level by evolving suitable soil and water conservation measures (erosion control and increased water use  efficiency), overcoming productivity constraints by identifying
suitable cropping patterns and strategies, bringing fallow land under cultivation to increase area under crop cultivation  and identifying efficient cropping zones for high value crops  and farming system models without affecting food grain
production and oil seeds production.

Organic farming

Organic farming is a unique production management system which primarily aims at cultivating the land and raising crops in a way that keeps the soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes (crop, animals, aquatic and
farm wastes), and other biological materials along with beneficial microbes to release nutrients to crops for increased sustainable production in an eco friendly pollution free environment. For increasing the soil productivity, Government is promoting use of organic materials through various schemes such as Composting of Farm Wastes using Pleurotus, Vermicomposting, application of Bio- fertilizers, Green Manures, Enriched Farm yard Manure, etc., to motivate the farmers in a massive scale.

Group Farming & Cluster approach

Group farming is one of the good agricultural practices wherein the agricultural activities at one place are integrated and developed by allocating & sharing available resources and utilizing to the best possible extent. The
group farming & Cluster approach help in advance planning, adoption of new technologies, uniform variety cultivation, managing labour shortage, ensuring timely operations, reducing seed requirement, Soil test based nutrient
management, effective irrigation and water management, reducing cost of cultivation, exchanging scientific information on conservation & utilization of resources, efficient marketing and profitability of farming.

Crop diversification

Crop diversification has been conceptualized as a measure of optimal utilization of water with emphasis on growing less water intensive, high remunerative crops. A farming system approach not only considers the farm, the farm household and off-farm activities in a holistic way but also aspects of nutrition, food security, sustainability, risk minimization and compensation, income and employment generation which ultimately helps in raising the economic
status of the farming community.

Farmers’ Hub is being established at 10 places at a total cost of `15.00 crores for information dissemination on innovative technologies and also for solving all field oriented problems related to Agriculture and sister departments at one spot.

The Central Control Laboratory

It is located at Kudumianmalai, is the Apex Organization which provides widespread awareness on soil-test–based fertiliser use, technical competence through training to the laboratory personnel and ensures the precision and
accuracy of analysis in the laboratories.


30 Soil Testing Laboratories functioning in the state have been computerized for uploading the details of soil samples analyzed in the AGRISNET, the web portal of Agriculture Department.

Blue Green Algae and Azolla help in fixing atmospheric Nitrogen in the paddy field

Green manure crops

Sunhemp, Daincha, Kolinji and Sesbania are capable of fixing atmospheric
nitrogen by symbiosis that improves soil nutrient status. Daincha and Kolinji are also capable of reducing salinity and alkalinity of the soil.

Nutrient Based Subsidy (NBS) policy was introduced by Central Government in the year 2010

Bio Control agents in Integrated Pest Management

Trichogramma  chilonis  (egg parasitoid)   - Sugarcane Internode borer

Bethylid,Braconid [larval parasites] and Eulophid [prepupal Parasites]  - Coconut Black headed caterpillar

Green Muscardine fungus [Metarhizium sp ]  -Coconut  Rhinoceros  beetle

Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus - Groundnut Red hairy caterpillar, Prodenia and
cotton boll worm

Bio pesticides - Pseudomonas, Trichoderma viridi  - Diseases in cotton, pulses and paddy

The Insecticide Act - 1968 and Insecticide Rules, 1971

Pesticide Testing Laboratories

The pesticide samples drawn from the manufacturing units and private sale outlets are analyzed in the 15 notified Pesticide Testing Laboratories functioning at Kancheepuram, Cuddalore, Salem, Coimbatore, Erode, Thanjavur, Trichy, Madurai, Thoothukudi, Vellore, Dharmapuri, Nagapattinam, Theni, Sivagangai and Tirunelveli districts

22 Farmers Training Centres  in Tamilnadu

Water Management Training Centre at Vinayagapuram, Madurai district is functioning from 1985

State Agricultural Extension Management Institute - at Kudumianmalai, Pudukottai is a pioneer, innovative, farmer-focussed Agricultural Management
Institute commissioned in the year 1975 which facilitates the
acquisition of managerial and technical skills by Agricultural
Extension Officers through training to enable them to provide most effective support and service to farmers for profitable agriculture.

State Agricultural Management and Extension Training Institute
(SAMETI) - Kudumiyanmalai, Pudukottai district

Crop Yield Competitions are conducted in Paddy, Groundnut, Cholam, Cumbu,
Greengram and Blackgram both at District and State level

Integrated Scheme for Oilseeds, Pulses, Oilpalm and Maize (ISOPOM)

This scheme is being implemented from  2004-05 with an
objective to increase the productivity of Oilseeds, Pulses,
Oilpalm and Maize by formulating region specific strategies.

HDPE - high density poly ethylene pipes

Source : Agriculture Department, Tamilnadu Government, Policy Note

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